Here we will consider techniques for expanding the basic summary – conclusion.

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Here we will consider techniques for expanding the basic summary – conclusion.

But two words of advice come in order. First, regardless of how clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper. Second, by virtue of its placement, the final outcome carries weight that is rhetorical. This is the statement that is last reader will encounter before turning from your work. Realizing this, writers who expand regarding the basic summary-conclusion often need to give their final words a dramatic flourish, a greater standard of diction. Soaring drama and rhetoric in a conclusion are fine provided that they do not unbalance the paper and call awareness of themselves. Having labored long hours over your paper, you’ve got every right to wax eloquent. But keep a sense of proportion and timing. Create your points quickly and end crisply.

Statement associated with Subject’s Significance

One of the most effective how to conclude a paper would be to talk about the larger need for that which you have written, providing readers with an additional reason to regard your work as a serious effort. When working with this plan, you move from the concern that is specific of paper to the broader concerns for the reader’s world. Often, you will need to choose among a variety of significances: A paper on the Wright brothers might end with a discussion of airline travel since it affects economies, politics, or families; a paper on contraception might end with a discussion of its impact on sexual mores, population, or perhaps the church. But try not to overwhelm the importance to your reader of your remarks. Keep your discussion well focused.

The paragraphs that are following a paper on George H. Shull, a pioneer when you look at the inbreeding and crossbreeding of corn:

. . . Thus, the hybrids described and developed by Shull 75 years ago have finally dominated U.S. corn production.

The adoption of hybrid corn was steady and dramatic when you look at the Corn Belt. From 1930 through 1979 the average yields of corn within the U.S. increased from 21.9 to 95.1 bushels per acre, plus the value that is additional the farmer happens to be several billion dollars each year.

The prosperity of hybrid corn has also stimulated the breeding of other crops, such as sorghum hybrids, a major feed grain crop in arid areas of the planet. Sorghum yields have increased 300 percent since 1930. Approximately 20 percent for the land devoted to rice production in China is planted with hybrid seed, that will be reported to yield 20 percent a lot more than the very best varieties. And many superior kinds of tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, as well as other vegetables are hybrids. Today practically all corn stated in the countries that are developed from hybrid seed. From those blue bloods associated with plant kingdom has come a model for feeding the entire world. 10

The sentence that is first of conclusion is a synopsis, and as a result the reader can infer that the paper included a discussion of Shull’s approaches for the hybrid breeding of corn. The summary is followed by a discussion that is two-paragraph the significance of Shull’s research for feeding the whole world.

Call for Further Research

Into the scientific and social communities that are scientific papers often end with a review of what has been presented (as, for example, in an experiment) plus the ways that the subject under consideration should be further explored. If you raise questions which you call on others to resolve, however, make sure you know that the investigation you are calling for hasn’t been already conducted.

This conclusion that is next from a sociological report in the placement of elderly both women and men in assisted living facilities.

Thus, our study shows a correlation between the keeping of elderly citizens in nursing facilities as well as the significant decline of their motor and intellectual skills throughout the ten months placement that is following. What the study have not made clear is the extent to which this marked decline is due to physical as opposed to emotional causes. Older people are referred to homes when this occurs in their lives when they grow less in a position to take care of themselves – which implies that the drop-off in skills can be as a result of physical causes. But the emotional stress to be put in a property, far from family as well as in an environment that confirms the patient’s view of himself as decrepit, may exacerbate – if you don’t itself be a primary reason behind – the patient’s rapid loss in abilities. Further research is needed to clarify the partnership between depression and particular physical ailments as these impact the skills of the elderly in nursing facilities. There is little doubt that information yielded by such studies can enable health care professionals to supply more efficient services.

Notice how this call for further study locates the author in a large community of researchers on whom she depends for assistance in answering the questions that have come out of her own work. The writer summarizes her findings (into the first sentence of this paragraph), states what her work has not yet shown, after which extends her invitation.

The purpose of your paper could be to examine a problem or controversy also to discuss factors that are contributing. In such a case, it would be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to supply an answer on the basis of the knowledge you’ve gained while conducting research. If for example the solution is to seriously be taken, your knowledge must be amply demonstrated in the body of the paper.

. . . The problem that is major college sports today just isn’t commercialism – it’s the exploitation of athletes as well as the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards.

Many universities are currently deriving benefits that are substantial sports programs that depend on the labor of athletes drawn through the poorest sections of America’s population. It will be the responsibility of educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens to see that these young people get a fair return for their labor in both terms of direct remuneration as well as in terms of career preparation for a life outside sports.

Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports ought to be designed to extend until graduation, as opposed to covering only four years of athletic eligibility, and really should include guarantees of tutoring, counseling, and proper medical care. At institutions where in actuality the profits are particularly large (such as for instance Texas A &M, that could manage to pay its football coach $280,000 a , scholarships should also provide salaries that extend beyond room, board, and tuition year. The main thing is that the athlete be remunerated fairly and also have the opportunity to gain skills from a university environment without undue competition from a physically and psychologically demanding full-time job. This could well require that scholarships be extended over five or six years, including summers.

Such a proposal, I suspect, will never be easy to implement. The current amateur system, despite its moral and educational flaws, enables universities to engage their athletic labor at minimal cost. But solving the fiscal crisis of the universities from the backs of America’s poor and minorities is not, in the end, a tenable solution. The college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and demand what is rightly his – and hers – a fair share of the revenue created by their hard work with the support of concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, and with the help from organized labor. 11

In this conclusion, the author summarizes his article in one single sentence: „the most important problem in college sports today is certainly not commercialism – this is the exploitation of athletes as well as the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards.“ In paragraph 2, he continues with an analysis of this problem just stated and follows with a recommendation that is general that „educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens“ be accountable for the welfare of college athletes. In paragraph 3, he makes a specific proposal, plus in the last paragraph, he anticipates resistance towards the proposal. He concludes by discounting this resistance and returning to the typical point, that college athletes should receive a deal that is fair.

An anecdote is a briefly told story or joke, the true point of which in a conclusion would be to shed light on the subject. The anecdote is much more direct than an allusion. With an allusion, you merely refer to a story („Too many people today live in Plato’s cave . . .“); aided by the anecdote, you truly retell the storyline. The anecdote allows readers to uncover because they get to exercise their creativity for themselves the significance of a reference to another source – an effort most readers enjoy.